Did you know that Portugal was one of the first European countries where a Republic was established?
Following France, Portugal was the second European country with a traditional monarchy system to embrace the Republic in 1910. With over 800 years ruled by Royals, Portugal is one of the pioneers to change to a republic regime! And soon after the Republic became the new government system in many world countries.
Learn more about October 5th an important day in the History of Portugal that happened 107 years ago when Portugal was again an example of innovation and Lisbon the centrepiece of all events.
The History of Portugal and Lisbon: October 05 the day of the Portuguese Republic in Lisbon - “Praça do Município”.
In the heart of Lisbon downtown, the square “Praça do Município “ witnessed on October 5 of 1910, the declaration of the Portuguese Republic, from a famous balcony in the “Paços do Concelho” building, today Lisbon City Hall.
It was announced the Portuguese people, by José Relvas, Eusébio Leão e Inocêncio Camacho the following: “United to the same ideal and aspirations, the people and the army just proclaimed in Portugal, the Republic.”
This was the result of a revolution that started on October 2nd supported by the Portuguese republican party and set the end of 800 years of Portuguese Monarchy as rulers.
Why was this possible and what led to the Portuguese Republic early adoption: The King’s regicide.
The monarchy was under a lot of pressure and even the King D.Carlos I said at some point in his life that “Portugal is a monarchy without monarchic supporters”. The famous poet Guerra Junqueiro also wrote: “ The Throne …What is a throne? A simple chair of worn velvet and old wood” and these were some of the few that predicted a dark future for the monarchy.
But an event was the tipping point for the Revolution, the King’s Regicide on February 1 of 1908.
The royal family had arrived in Lisbon from Vila Viçosa and was in Terreiro do Paço (today is known as Praça do Comércio) and as they approached the “Paços do Concelho” two men killed the King D. Carlos I and his son who had jumped in his defence.
With only 18 years old D.Manuel II is crowned the King of Portugal. However, is experience was not enough to deter the republican forces that had started to round up support for a political change. In Lisbon and eco of an upcoming revolution emerges…
The beginning of the Revolution and the “Implantation of the Portuguese Republic” as known in Portugal, an unavoidable date to the History of Lisbon
The military comes out of their barracks and takes control of Lisbon’s most relevant command centres and all around Lisbon in places like Terreiro do Paço, Carmo, Rossio and Restauradores. Crowds gather on the streets and confront the monarchy supporters
Much like what had happened in Paris years before, several home-made barricades were built on the streets, made from pieces of wood, bags of sand, doors, furniture… And among the barricaded groups there were doctors, engineers, journalists and artists.
At the top of Avenida da Liberdade rises the famous “Roundabout” the headquarters of the revolution.
The King is surrounded at the “Palácio das Necessidades” and was forced to leave the country on a royal boat.
The revolution ended up being of short duration but it still registered 76 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
A new anthem, flag and the first Portuguese Republic President
After the Republic Implantation the current Portuguese flag was adopted, and also the anthem “D’A Portuguesa”.
On August, 24th 1911 the first president was nominated, Manuel de Arriaga. However, this new republic did not solve most of the country problems and in the next 16 years, Portugal had 45 republican governments.
The images of the Revolution: the bust and the woman symbol of the Republic: Hilda Puga;
The personification of the Republic is associated with the famous painting of Eugène Delacroix-“La Liberté Guidant le people” “ Liberty guiding the people”.
This painting also inspires the illustration of the Portuguese Republican Institution – the Republic figure.
But one of the busts of the lady of the Republic was inspired by another muse her name Hilda Puga, an 18-year-old woman from Arraiolos- Alentejo that came to Lisbon with her family in the hope of finding a better life.
This Portuguese woman and the painting of Delacroix were the inspiration to the sculptor Simão de Almeida for this bust. The model is today at the Lisbon City Museum in Palácio da Pimenta.
The location of the original bust seems to be a well-kept secret is Portugal and after a lot of research and many phone calls, we discovered that the original bust is not in Lisbon but in the centre of Portugal in Figueiró dos Vinhos, held by the local City Hall.
The image of this bust became famous, but the real and official bust of the Portuguese Republic, the one from the sculptor Francisco Santos, is now in the Noble Room of Paços do Concelho where under the eyes of the Republic a lot of official acts take place. This but was the official winner of the public contest opened at the time by the Lisbon city hall.
Visit Lisbon, Paços do Concelho and find out more about the Portuguese History on Caravel on Wheels!
Go to the official ceremonies at Praça do Munícipio and enjoy the rest of this national public holiday on a tour around Lisbon.
On October 5th see Lisbon top attractions an learn history on a Lisbon tour!
A different program that will tell you the history of the city of Lisbon, from the Roman times, to the Age of Discovery and to the “Implantation of the Republic”.
Sail with us Caravel on Wheels, a historical tour of the city across Lisbon and enjoy with us the Republic Implantation holiday.